British and French forces seized upon minor difficulties with Chinese officials to commence a war whose purpose was to increase their trading privileges. The occupation of Canton in December 1857 by an Anglo-French force was followed by the capture of Tientsin. The Chinese were forced to sign the Treaties of Tientsin which granted residence in Peking to foreign diplomats, more ports of trade and residence, foreign rights of navigation along the Yangtse river, the free movement in China of Christian missionaries, and legalization of the opium trade. The United States and Russia benefited from the same privileges as the French and British. Further imperialist demands and Chinese resistance resulted in an allied occupation of Peking in the …
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Editors. "Second Opium War; Anglo-French War with China". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 February 2010
[https://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=4992, accessed 15 December 2017.]