On 4 February 1899, Filipino insurgents, unable to get
recognition of independence from the U.S., launched a guerrilla
war. Their leader, Emilio Aguinaldo, was captured on 23 May 1901.
The Philippine Insurrection ended in 1902.
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Richert, Lucas Paul. "Philippines declared an independent republic". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 February 2010
[https://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=5451, accessed 21 January 2018.]