John Balliol, a Scottish nobleman born some time between 1248 and 1250, became one of the two main claimants to the throne of Scotland after the death of Alexander III, and subsequently his heir Margaret in 1290. His main rival was Robert Bruce, Lord of Annandale (grandfather of the more famous Robert the Bruce). There was no obvious choice between these two claimants: Bruce was closest to Alexander II in terms of generations, but John Balliol, great-great-great-grandson of King David I through his mother, had the superior claim on the grounds of primogeniture. Their rival claims were determined by a group of Scottish auditors, presided over by Edward I of England, and they declared Balliol as King on 17 November 1292.
Edward I, …
Editors. "Reign of King John Baliol of Scotland". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 31 July 2012
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=645, accessed 23 February 2017.]