After David I's only son, Henry Earl of Huntingdon and Northumbria, died suddenly in 1152, Henry's eleven-year-old son Malcolm became the heir apparent. He succeeded to the throne on his grandfather's death the following year, He faced several rivals for the crown, including several illegitimate royal children, other Scottish nobles, and Henry II of England. His relations with Henry II were sometimes strained - Henry refused to let Malcolm retain the lands of Northumbria and Cumbria that had been gained by his grandfather during the "Anarchy" of Stephen and Matilda's reigns. Malcolm accompanied Henry II on a military campaign in France in 1158, and was knighted by the English king, although was not received with approval from his …
Editors. "Reign of King Malcolm IV of Scotland". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 31 July 2012; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=646, accessed 27 April 2015.]