Richard I has gone down in English historical legend as a great hero, known better as 'Richard the Lionheart' than by his regnal number. This is surprising, given the fact that he barely visited England. Although he was born at Beaumont Palace, in Oxford, his primary languages were French and Langue d'Oc, the language of the Occitan region including southern France, as well as parts of northern Italy and Spain. He was made Duke of Anjou in 1170, after his father Henry II, seriously ill, was persuaded to disperse some of his power among his sons, and spent a great deal of time on the continent before his accession. His coronation in 1189 is most noteworthy for sparking a wave of anti-semitic violence. Richard reputedly banned all Jews …
Editors. "Reign of King Richard I of England". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 31 July 2012; last revised .
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=648, accessed 04 July 2015.]