Muhammad Iqbal: Payam-e Mashriq [Message of the East] (191 words)

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Message of the East, subtitled “In answer to the divan of the German poet Goethe”, is a response to Goethe’s West-ostlicher Divan (1819). Iqbal’s poem consists of 155 quatrains, a group of poems in a mainly lyric mode, 45 “ghazals” (love lyrics), and a section entitled “Portrait of the Europeans”. This section draws sketches of some European poets and philosophers, including Nietzsche, Schopenhauer, Byron, Hegel, Goethe, Locke, Lenin, and Bergson. The poem is dedicated to the then King of Afghanistan. Iqbal’s Urdu preface outlines his aim as “foregrounding the ethical [“akhlaqi”], religious [“mazhabi”] and communal [“milli”] truths and ideas that are relevant to the inner development of …

Majeed, Javed. "Payam-e Mashriq". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 26 July 2010
[, accessed 17 January 2018.]

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