Oftentimes medieval poets intertwined their literary themes with political concerns, formulating sharp or oblique criticisms of the aristocracy, the royal court, and even the king himself. This phenomenon grew in intensity since the middle of the twelfth century, when political theorists such as John of Salisbury increasingly targeted the crown and warned about tyrannical tendencies by the ruler. This criticism could be expressed directly, such as in his case, or hidden behind a fictional veil, such as in the fables by Marie de France, or through a narrative about extensive military conflicts, then adventures, encounters with monsters, and global travel, such as in the anonymous Herzog Ernst [Duke Ernst].
Citation: Classen, Albrecht. "Herzog Ernst". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 23 March 2023 [https://www.litencyc.com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=41190, accessed 06 June 2023.]