Charlemagne’s grandfather, Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer), practical ruler of the Frankish kingdom, has gained fame through his military skills and leadership qualities which made it possible for him to defeat the Arabic forces that threatened not only his kingdom, but also Western Christendom altogether. In 732 Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Umayyad ruler of the Iberian Peninsula, crossed the Pyrenees and attacked the country north of it. At first he defeated Duke Eudes (Odo) of Aquitaine, who had already been weakened the year before through a defeat at the hand of Charles Martell. Abdul Rahman reached the Loire, but in October of that year he suddenly, perhaps unexpectedly, encountered the Frankish military ruler between Tours and …
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Classen, Albrecht. "Charles Martel". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 29 February 2008
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=11904, accessed 20 August 2017.]