Henry VIII was incensed by the Pope's refusal to recognise that his marriage to Catherine of Aragon was illegitimate. He responded by declaring himself to be Head of the Church of England; this enabled him to marry Anne Boleyn. As a result he was excommunicated by the Pope.
Editors. "Henry VIII is excommunicated". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 March 2010
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=10000, accessed 22 May 2013.]