A joint Catholic force of Spanish, Italian and Irish troops invades Ireland and proclaims Holy War sanctioned by the papacy against Elizabeth I. The rebellion gathers strength, but is ultimately quashed when Lord Grey, Lord Deputy of Ireland, massacres them at Smerwick in Kerry.
Editors. "Unsuccessful attempt by Spain to land in Ireland". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 March 2010
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=10200, accessed 12 December 2013.]