Editors. "Pro-slavery forces win the territorial elections in Kansas". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 March 2010
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=10920, accessed 21 December 2013.]
Some 6000 votes are cast even though only 2000 voters are registered, many by pro-slavery border ruffians from Missouri. The pro-slavery government passes laws imposing the death penalty for aiding a fugitive slave and two years hard labor for questioning the legality of slavery. Antislavery forces respond by setting up an opposing government in Topeka.