Vorticism has proved difficult to define, has been misunderstood, and has provoked much controversy. Seen by most critics as the first British artistic avant-garde movement, it flared briefly in the years 1914-15 before effectively being snuffed out by the First World War, although several painters associated with it continued to work along Vorticist lines. The years immediately preceding the First World War saw the emergence in continental Europe of a number of advanced movements and styles that transformed the world of art. London exhibitions such as Manet and the Post-Impressionists (1910), An Exhibition of Pictures by Paul Cézanne and Paul Gauguin (1911), Paintings by the Italian Futurist Artists (1912), t…
Gasiorek, Andrzej. "Vorticism". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 14 June 2003; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=1175, accessed 27 April 2015.]