Editors. "Napoleon annexes Oldenburg". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 March 2010; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=13649, accessed 26 April 2015.]
By annexing Oldenburg, Napoleon virtually alienates Tsar Alexander, since the heir apparent to that Duchy is his brother-in-law, and the annexation violates Treaty of Tilsit (July 1807)
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