Editors. "Charles VIII leaves Rome having apparently forced the Pope into submission". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 November 2010
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=13936, accessed 26 May 2013.]
Charles VIII leaves Rome for Naples. Faced with the threat from the French army, Pope Alexander VI had agreed to surrender Civitavecchia (a port and fortress outside Rome) and to offer his son Cesare Borgia as a hostage (although Cesare escaped from French clutches a few days later, on 30th January).