Editors. "Charles VIII faces the Holy League at Battle of Fornovo". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 November 2010
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=13944, accessed 07 December 2013.]
The Battle of Fornovo, near Parma, was fought between Charles VIII of France and the forces of the Holy League that had been formed by the Pope, Aragon (and Sicily), Milan, Venice and the Emperor to counteract French aggression. Although the French did best out of the fighting, it was of little use, since they then left Italy having gained nothing.