Editors. "Treaty of Berwick". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 February 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=15331, accessed 10 December 2013.]
Elizabeth I and James VI form a league of friendship by the Treaty of Berwick. This sets them in opposition to the joint Catholic force of James' mother, Mary Queen of Scots, and Philip II of Spain, whom Mary has recently announced as her heir. The treaty also gives James financial support, promising him an annual pension from England.