Editors. "Fire ships destroy many of the Spanish galleons off Calais". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 February 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=15378, accessed 08 December 2013.]
The English, under the instructions of Lord Admiral Howard of Efingham, deliberately sets fire to some of its ships and sends them into the midst of the Spanish Armada, anchored off Calais. This destroys many of the fleet's galleons, forcing them to abandon their anchors and cast out to sea, losing their careful formation in the process.