Editors. "The Duke of Parma strengthens the Leaguer garrison of Paris". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 February 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=15443, accessed 12 December 2013.]
The Duke of Parma, Spanish-appointed Governor of the Netherlands, intervenes in France on behalf of the Catholic League. He supplies 1200 Walloon soldiers to defend the League's garrison in Paris and relieves Rouen against Henry IV, before returning to the Netherlands.