Editors. "The Lisbon spice market is closed to Dutch and English merchants". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 February 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=15481, accessed 20 December 2013.]
Philip II bans Dutch and English merchants from accessing the Lisbon spice market, in the context of the ongoing war between these countries, centring on the Netherlands. In response, explorers and traders from these nations are prompted to make voyages to the Far East to seek out these spices from their origins, and the process of colonialism is accelerated.