Editors. "Empire and Spain join Dutch-Swedish alliance of against France". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 April 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=16729, accessed 24 May 2013.]
The League of the Hague is formed, when Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I and Charles II of Spain join a Dutch-Swedish alliance of September 1681 against France.