Editors. "James III the Pretender is forced to leave France". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 April 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=17200, accessed 23 May 2013.]
James Edward Stuart, the 'Old Pretender', is forced to leave France because of the new Triple Alliance. He flees instead to the protection of the Papacy.