Editors. "James III the Pretender is forced to leave France". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 April 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=17200, accessed 30 March 2015.]
James Edward Stuart, the 'Old Pretender', is forced to leave France because of the new Triple Alliance. He flees instead to the protection of the Papacy.
Please log in to consult the article in its entirety. If you are not a subscriber, please click here to read about membership. All our articles have been written recently by experts in their field, more than 95% of them university professors.