Editors. "James III the Pretender is forced to leave France". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 April 2011; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=17200, accessed 19 April 2015.]
James Edward Stuart, the 'Old Pretender', is forced to leave France because of the new Triple Alliance. He flees instead to the protection of the Papacy.
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