Editors. "Quadruple Alliance against Spain". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 April 2011; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=17224, accessed 28 April 2015.]
The Quadruple Alliance is formed between France, the Emperor, England and the Dutch Republic against the Spain of Philip V. Incentive for the alliance came about when the Spanish seized Sicily and Cardinal Alberoni, first minister of Spain under Philip V, drew up a plan for a Swedish attack on Scotland, a combined Russo-Swedish attack on Hanover and a Spanish invasion of England. Under the terms of the Alliance, the Emperor and Philip of Spain were to renounce claims to each other's possessions, Savoy was to exchange Sicily for Sardinia, and the succession to Tuscany and Parma was to be secured by the children of Philip's second marriage. The alliance's members agreed to declare war on Spain if necessary.
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