Editors. "Birth of Prince Charles Edward, the Young Pretender". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 April 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=17247, accessed 12 December 2013.]
Prince Charles Edward, 'the Young Pretender', is born, son of James Edward Stuart and grandson of James II of England and Scotland, who was deposed in 1688 after fleeing the throne.