Editors. "Treaty of Madrid between Spain and France". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 April 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=17255, accessed 10 December 2013.]
Spain and France sign the Treaty of Madrid, which aims at mutual defence and guarantee. Its terms also deal with the question of the Italian duchies, and demonstrate France's support of the Spanish claim to the island of Gibraltar.