Editors. "Porteous Riots in Edinburgh". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 April 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=17399, accessed 12 December 2013.]
The Porteous Riots break out in Edinburgh. John Porteus, the captain of the town guard, orders troops to fire on a mob demonstrating at the arrest of smugglers. He is sentenced to death by Edinburgh magistrates for murder, and although he is reprieved by Queen Caroline, the sentence is still carried out.