Editors. "Ultra-conservative Jean VilleIe succeeds Richelieu in France". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 30 December 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=17815, accessed 20 December 2013.]
In France, the Duc de Richelieu is forced to resign from his position as prime minister. He is succeeded by Jean VilleIe, ending the rule of the Right Centre, and leading to a period of reaction under the Ultra-Conservatives. Richelieu himself is to die of apoplexy the following year.