Editors. "British, French and Dutch fleets attack Japan in Shimonoseki Straits". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 30 December 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=18480, accessed 08 March 2014.]
After Japan has closed its ports and expelled foreigners, British, French and Dutch fleets respond by attacking the Shimonoseki Straits. A truce on 14th September is followed by a peace convention on 22nd October, when Japan agrees to pay an indemnity of $3 million.