Editors. "Bismarck begins struggle with Catholic Church". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 30 December 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=18607, accessed 19 April 2014.]
In Germany, a Kulturkampf (cultural struggle) between the Prussian government and the Catholic Church begins, when Otto von Bismarck suppresses the Roman Catholic Department for spiritual affairs.