Editors. "Suez Canal convention opens it to all nations in war and peace". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 30 December 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=19001, accessed 12 December 2013.]
The European powers sign the Suez Canal convention at Constantinople, declaring the canal open to all nations in both war and peace. The signatories are Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, Russia and the Ottoman Empire.