Editors. "Giolitti's Italian ministry falls through bank scandals". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 30 December 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=19109, accessed 18 December 2013.]
In Italy, the ministry of Giovanni Giolitti falls as a result of banking scandals. He is succeeded as prime minister by Francesco Crispi, although after a ten year absence from the top of government, Giolitti is to return to the prime ministerial position three more times, between 1903 and 1921.