In 1630, Charles I of England had brought an end to the state of
war that had existed between England and Spain for the past five
years. In the Treaty of Madrid England effectively admitted defeat
in this conflict, agreeing to refrain in future from supporting the
Protestant allies in the Thirty Years' War. The following year, the
two countries further reinforced their amicable relations by
signing a naval treaty in joint opposition to Dutch sea-power.
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