(9 October 1757 to 6 November 1836) Charles-Philippe de Bourbon, Comte d'Artois. The son of the dauphin Louis and Maria Josepha of Saxony, a libertine and reactionary anti-democrat who led the extremist Ultra party during the reign of his brother Louis XVIII. He became king on his brother's death and did his best to undo the Revolution. He returned confiscated lands to former aristocrats, increased the power of the clergy and imposed the death penalty for sacrilege. His policies eventually led to the the “July days” when the bourgeoisie took up arms against him. He is deposed and abdicates on the 30th of July 1830; Louis-Philippe, eldest son of the Bourbon duc d'Orléans, known as Phillipe-Egalité, is voted king by a congress of …
Editors. "Reign of Charles X of France". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 22 December 2007; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=4611, accessed 26 April 2015.]