By Convention of the Straits the powers guarantee Ottoman independence and the Dardanelles and Bosphorus are closed to warships of all nations in peacetime (thus overthrowing treaty of Unkiar Skelessi; 1833).European powers agree that the Bosporus and Dardanelles will be closed to warships.
Editors. "The Straits Convention". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 January 2010
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=4813, accessed 30 July 2014.]