Alexander II, the only son of William I ('the Lion'), succeeded to the throne of Scotland aged only 16, upon his father's death. The accession seemed straightforward, but the following year two clans, the Meic Uilleim and MacHeths, rebelled against his fragile authority. However, Alexander was able to hold his own with loyalist troops, and soon he turned on the offensive, while King John of England was weakened by threatened invasion from France and revolt among his own nobility. Although the Scottish army advanced all the way to Dover, their progress was then halted by the death of King John. Alexander was forced to come to terms with his successor, Henry III of England, in a treaty that involved him marying Henry's sister, Joan of …
Editors. "Reign of King Alexander II of Scotland". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 31 July 2012; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=604, accessed 19 April 2015.]