A decisive battle in early world history, this marked the furthest incursion of Muslim forces into Europe and halted the conquest of Europe by Islam. It also helped lay the foundations of the Carolingian Empire. The battle pitted Frankish and Burgundian forces led by Charles Martel, ruler of the Frankish kingdom, against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abd-ar-Rahman, Governor-general of al-Andalus. The Franks were victorious, and it was in this victory that Charles earned the surname “Martel” (the hammer).
Editors. "Battle of Tours (Poitiers)". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 May 2009; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=6827, accessed 18 April 2015.]