Pepin III defeats the Lombards and gives the pope control of Ravenna and the Republic of Rome, under Carolingian protection. This act founds the Papal States and the temporal power of the papacy.
Editors. "Donation of Pepin". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 May 2009; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=6853, accessed 19 April 2015.]