Inspired by reports of the execution of four young communists in Cologne in 1933, Heinrich Böll wrote his first internationally renowned novel Billard um halbzehn [Billiards at Half-past Nine, 1959]. 1959 marked the tenth anniversary of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), and heralded the German people’s renewed confidence in the future: under the helm of conservative chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Germay had become a member of the European Economic Union and of NATO, and the Wirtschaftswunder (economic miracle) brought prosperity and political stability to the nation that had recently regained its former international recognition. The decade also …
Mundt, Hannelore G.. "Billard um halbzehn". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 14 February 2007; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=11632, accessed 28 April 2015.]