Muhammad Iqbal: The Development of Metaphysics in Persia

(309 words)

Iqbal’s English work The Development of Metaphysics in Persia (1908) is based on his Munich PhD thesis. It examines the key issues and themes of Persian metaphysics from pre-Islamic times to the nineteenth century. One of the major themes of the book is the role which pre-Islamic Persian belief systems played in metaphysical thought after the advent of Islam in Persia, and in the subsequent Persian “restatement of Islam” (Iqbal 1908, p. 82). Iqbal argues that the organizing theme in the history of Persian metaphysics is the issue of dualistic and monistic views of reality. He suggests that the history of Persian metaphysics needs to be studied in terms of its engagement with two kinds of dualistic thought or as h…

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Majeed, Javed. "The Development of Metaphysics in Persia". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 26 July 2010
[, accessed 04 July 2015.]