John Dryden

Absalom and Achitophel

    In pious times, ere priestcraft did begin,
     Before polygamy was made a sin;
    When man on many multiplied his kind,
    Ere one to one was cursedly confined;
5   When nature prompted, and no law denied
    Promiscuous use of concubine and bride;
    Then Israel’s monarch after heaven’s own heart,
    His vigorous warmth did variously impart
    To wives and slaves; and, wide as his command,
10   Scattered his Maker’s image through the land.
    Michal, of royal blood, the crown did wear;
    A soil ungrateful to the tiller’s care:
    Not so the rest; for several mothers bore
    To godlike David several sons before.
15   But since like slaves his bed they did ascend,
    No true succession could their seed attend.
    Of all this numerous progeny was none
    So beautiful, so brave, as Absalom:
    Whether, inspired by some diviner lust,
20   His father got him with a greater gust;
    Or that his conscious destiny made way,
    By manly beauty, to imperial sway.
    Early in foreign fields he won renown,
    With kings and states allied to Israel’s crown:
25   In peace the thoughts of war he could remove,
    And seemed as he were only born for love.
    Whate’er he did was done with so much ease,
    In him alone ’twas natural to please;
    His motions all accompanied with grace;
30   And paradise was opened in his face.
    With secret joy indulgent David viewed
    His youthful image in his son renewed:
    To all his wishes nothing he denied;
    And made the charming Annabel his bride.
35   What faults he had (for who from faults is free?)
    His father could not, or he would not see.
    Some warm excesses which the law forbore,
    Were construed youth that purged by boiling o’er,
    And Amnon’s murder, by a specious name,
40   Was called a just revenge for injured fame.
    Thus praised and loved the noble youth remained,
    While David, undisturbed, in Sion reigned.
    But life can never be sincerely blest;
    Heaven punishes the bad, and proves the best.
45   The Jews, a headstrong, moody, murmuring race,
    As ever tried the extent and stretch of grace;
    God’s pampered people, whom, debauched with ease,
    No king could govern, nor no God could please
    (Gods they had tried of every shape and size,
50   That god-smiths could produce, or priests devise);
    These Adam-wits, too fortunately free,
    Began to dream they wanted liberty;
    And when no rule, no precedent was found,
    Of men by laws less circumscribed and bound,
55   They led their wild desires to woods and caves,
    And thought that all but savages were slaves.
    They who, when Saul was dead, without a blow,
    Made foolish Ishbosheth the crown forgo;
    Who banished David did from Hebron bring,
60   And with a general shout proclaimed him king:
    Those very Jews, who, at their very best,
    Their humour more than loyalty expressed,
    Now wondered why so long they had obeyed
    An idol monarch, which their hands had made;
65   Thought they might ruin him they could create,
    Or melt him to that golden calf a state.
    But these were random bolts; no formed design,
    Nor interest made the factious crowd to join:
    The sober part of Israel, free from stain,
70   Well knew the value of a peaceful reign,
    And, looking backward with a wise affright,
    Saw seams of wounds, dishonest to the sight
    In contemplation of whose ugly scars
    They cursed the memory of civil wars.
75   The moderate sort of men, thus qualified,
    Inclined the balance to the better side;
    And David’s mildness managed it so well,
    The bad found no occasion to rebel.
    But when to sin our biased nature leans,
80   The careful devil is still at hand with means;
    And providently pimps for ill desires:
    The Good Old Cause revived, a plot requires.
    Plots, true or false, are necessary things,
    To raise up commonwealths, and ruin kings.
85   The inhabitants of Old Jerusalem
    Were Jebusites, the town so called from them;
    And theirs the native right.
    But when the chosen people grew more strong,
    The rightful cause at length became the wrong;
90   And every loss the men of Jebus bore,
    They still were thought God’s enemies the more.
    Thus worn and weakened, well or ill content,
    Submit they must to David’s government:
    Impoverished and deprived of all command,
95   Their taxes doubled as they lost their land;
    And what was harder yet to flesh and blood,
    Their gods disgraced, and burnt like common wood.
    This set the heathen priesthood in a flame;
    For priests of all religions are the same:
100   Of whatso’er descent their godhead be,
    Stock, stone, or other homely pedigree,
    In his defence his servants are as bold,
    As if he had been born of beaten gold.
    The Jewish rabbis, though their enemies,
105   In this conclude them honest men and wise:
    For ’twas their duty, all the learned think,
    To espouse his cause, by whom they eat and drink.
    From hence began that Plot, the nation’s curse,
    Bad in itself, but represented worse;
110   Raised in extremes, and in extremes decried;
    With oaths affirmed, with dying vows denied;
    Not weighed or winnowed by the multitude;
    But swallowed in the mass, unchewed and crude.
    Some truth there was, but dashed and brewed with lies,
115   To please the fools, and puzzle all the wise.
    Succeeding times did equal folly call,
    Believing nothing, or believing all.
    The Egyptian rites the Jebusites embraced;
    Where gods were recommended by their taste.
120   Such savoury deities must needs be good,
    As served at once for worship and for food
    By force they could not introduce these gods,
    For ten to one in former days was odds;
    So fraud was used (the sacrificer’s trade):
125   Fools are more hard to conquer than persuade.
    Their busy teachers mingled with the Jews,
    And raked for converts even the court and stews:
    Which Hebrew priests the more unkindly took,
    Because the fleece accompanies the flock.
130   Some thought they God’s anointed meant to slay
    By guns, invented since full many a day:
    Our author swears it not; but who can know
    How far the Devil and Jebusites may go?
    This Plot, which failed for want of common sense,
135   Had yet a deep and dangerous consequence:
    For, as when raging fevers boil the blood,
    The standing lake soon floats into a flood,
    And every hostile humour, which before
    Slept quiet in its channels, bubbles o’er;
140   So several factions from this first ferment
    Work up to foam, and threat the government.
    Some by their friends, more by themselves thought wise,
    Opposed the power to which they could not rise.
    Some had in courts been great, and thrown from thence,
145   Like fiends were hardened in impenitence.
    Some, by their monarch’s fatal mercy, grown
    From pardoned rebels kinsmen to the throne,
    Were raised in power and public office high;
    Strong bands, if bands ungrateful men could tie.
150   Of these the false Achitophel was first,
    A name to all succeeding ages cursed:
    For close designs and crooked counsels fit;
    Sagacious, bold, and turbulent of wit;
    Restless, unfixed in principles and place;
155   In power unpleased, impatient of disgrace:
    A fiery soul, which, working out its way,
    Fretted the pigmy body to decay,
    And o’er-informed the tenement of clay.
    A daring pilot in extremity;
160   Pleased with the danger, when the waves went high,
    He sought the storms; but, for a calm unfit,
    Would steer too nigh the sands, to boast his wit.
    Great wits are sure to madness near allied,
    And thin partitions do their bounds divide;
165   Else why should he, with wealth and honour blest,
    Refuse his age the needful hours of rest?
    Punish a body which he could not please;
    Bankrupt of life, yet prodigal of ease?
    And all to leave what with his toil he won,
170   To that unfeathered two-legged thing, a son,
    Got, while his soul did huddled notions try;
    And born a shapeless lump, like anarchy.
    In friendship false, implacable in hate;
    Resolved to ruin or to rule the state.
175   To compass this the triple bond he broke,
    The pillars of the public safety shook;
    And fitted Israel for a foreign yoke:
    Then seized with fear, yet still affecting fame,
    Usurped a patriot’s all-atoning name.
180   So easy still it proves in factious times
    With public zeal to cancel private crimes:
    How safe is treason, and how sacred ill,
    Where none can sin against the people’s will:
    Where crowds can wink, and no offence be known,
185   Since in another’s guilt they find their own.
    Yet fame deserved no enemy can grude:
    The statesman we abhor, but praise the judge.
    In Israel’s courts ne’er sat an Abbethdin
    With more discerning eyes, or hands more clean:
190   Unbribed, unsought, the wretched to redress,
    Swift of despatch, and easy of access.
    Oh, had he been content to serve the crown
    With virtues only proper to the gown,
    Or had the rankness of the soil been freed
195   From cockle that oppressed the noble seed,
    David for him his tuneful harp had strung,
    And heaven had wanted one immortal song.
    But wild ambition loves to slide, not stand,
    And fortune’s ice prefers to virtue’s land.
200   Achitophel, grown weary to possess
    A lawful fame and lazy happiness,
    Disdained the golden fruit to gather free,
    And lent the crowd his arm to shake the tree.
    Now, manifest of crimes contrived long since,
205   He stood at bold defiance with his prince;
    Held up the buckler of the people’s cause
    Against the crown, and skulked behind the laws.
    The wished occasion of the Plot he takes;
    Some circumstances finds, but more he makes.
210   By buzzing emissaries fills the ears
    Of listening crowds with jealousies and fears
    Of arbitrary counsels brought to light,
    And proves the king himself a Jebusite.
    Weak arguments! which yet he knew full well
215   Were strong with people easy to rebel:
    For, governed by the moon, the giddy Jews
    Tread the same track when she the prime renews;
    And once in twenty years, their scribes record,
    By natural instinct they change their lord.
220   Achitopel still wants a chief, and none
    Was found so fit as warlike Absolon:
    Not that he wished his greatness to create
    (For politicians neither love or hate),
    But for he knew his title not allowed
225   Would keep him still depending on the crowd,
    That kingly power, thus ebbing out, might be
    Drawn to the dregs of a democracy.
    Auspicious prince! at whose nativity
    Some royal planet ruled the southern sky;
230   Thy longing country's darling and desire;
    Their cloudy pillar and their guardian fire:
    Their second Moses, whose extended wand
    Divides the seas, and shows the promised land:
    Whose dawning day, in every distant age,
235   Has exercised the sacred prophet's rage:
    The people's prayer, the glad diviner's theme,
    The young men's vision, and the old men's dream!
    Thee, Saviour, thee the nation's vows confess,
    And, never satisfied with seeing, bless:
240   Swift, unbespoken pomps thy steps proclaim,
    And stammering babes are taught to lisp thy name.
    How long wilt thou the general joy detain,
    Starve and defraud the people of thy reign!
    Content ingloriously to pass thy days,
245   Like one of virtue's fools that feed on praise;
    Till thy fresh glories, which now shine so bright,
    Grow stale, and tarnish with our daily sight?
    Believe me, royal youth, thy fruit must be
    Or gather'd ripe, or rot upon the tree.
250   Heaven has to all allotted, soon or late,
    Some lucky revolution of their fate:
    Whose motions, if we watch and guide with skill,
    (For human good depends on human will,)
    Our fortune rolls as from a smooth descent,
255   And from the first impression takes the bent:
    But if, unseized, she glides away like wind,
    And leaves repenting folly far behind.
    Now, now she meets you with a glorious prize,
    And spreads her locks before her as she flies.
260   Had thus old David, from whose loins you spring,
    Not dared when fortune called him to be king,
    At Gath an exile he might still remain,
    And Heaven's anointing oil had been in vain.
    Let his successful youth your hopes engage;
265   But shun the example of declining age:
    Behold him setting in his western skies,
    The shadows lengthening as the vapours rise.
    He is not now, as when on Jordan's sand
    The joyful people throng'd to see him land,
270   Covering the beach and blackening all the strand;
    But, like the prince of angels, from his height
    Comes tumbling downward with diminish'd light:
    Betray'd by one poor Plot to public scorn:
    (Our only blessing since his cursed return:)
275   Those heaps of people which one sheaf did bind,
    Blown off and scatter'd by a puff of wind.
    What strength can he to your designs oppose,
    Naked of friends, and round beset with foes?
    If Pharaoh's doubtful succour he should use,
280   A foreign aid would more incense the Jews:
    Proud Egypt would dissembled friendship bring;
    Foment the war, but not support the king:
    Nor would the royal party e'er unite
    With Pharaoh's arms to assist the Jebusite;
285   Or if they should, their interest soon would break,
    And with such odious aid make David weak.
    All sorts of men, by my successful arts,
    Abhorring kings, estrange their alter'd hearts
    From David's rule: and 'tis their general cry—
290   Religion, commonwealth, and liberty.
    If you, as champion of the public good,
    Add to their arms a chief of royal blood,
    What may not Israel hope, and what applause
    Might such a general gain by such a cause?
295   Not barren praise alone—that gaudy flower,
    Fair only to the sight—but solid power:
    And nobler is a limited command,
    Given by the love of all your native land,
    Than a successive title, long and dark,
300   Drawn from the mouldy rolls of Noah's ark.
    What cannot praise effect in mighty minds,
    When flattery soothes, and when ambition blinds?
    Desire of power, on earth a vicious weed,
    Yet sprung from high, is of celestial seed:
305   In God 'tis glory; and when men aspire,
    'Tis but a spark too much of heavenly fire.
    The ambitious youth, too covetous of fame,
    Too full of angels' metal in his frame,
    Unwarily was led from virtue's ways,
310   Made drunk with honour, and debauch'd with praise.
    Half loath, and half consenting to the ill,
    For royal blood within him struggled still,
    He thus replied:—And what pretence have I
    To take up arms for public liberty?
315   My father governs with unquestion'd right,
    The faith's defender, and mankind's delight;
    Good, gracious, just, observant of the laws;
    And Heaven by wonders has espoused his cause.
    Whom has he wrong'd, in all his peaceful reign?
320   Who sues for justice to his throne in vain?
    What millions has he pardon'd of his foes,
    Whom just revenge did to his wrath expose!
    Mild, easy, humble, studious of our good;
    Inclined to mercy, and averse from blood.
325   If mildness ill with stubborn Israel suit,
    His crime is God's beloved attribute.
    What could he gain his people to betray,
    Or change his right for arbitrary sway?
    Let haughty Pharaoh curse with such a reign
330   His fruitful Nile, and yoke a servile train.
    If David's rule Jerusalem displease,
    The dog-star heats their brains to this disease.
    Why then should I, encouraging the bad,
    Turn rebel and run popularly mad?
335   Were he a tyrant, who by lawless might
    Oppress'd the Jews, and raised the Jebusite,
    Well might I mourn; but nature's holy bands
    Would curb my spirits, and restrain my hands:
    The people might assert their liberty;
340   But what was right in them were crime in me.
    His favour leaves me nothing to require,
    Prevents my wishes, and outruns desire.
    What more can I expect while David lives?
    All but his kingly diadem he gives:
345   And that—But here he paused; then, sighing, said—
    Is justly destined for a worthier head.
    For when my father from his toils shall rest,
    And late augment the number of the blest,
    His lawful issue shall the throne ascend,
350   Or the collateral line, where that shall end.
    His brother, though oppress'd with vulgar spite,
    Yet dauntless, and secure of native right,
    Of every royal virtue stands possess'd;
    Still dear to all the bravest and the best.
355   His courage foes—his friends his truth proclaim;
    His loyalty the king—the world his fame.
    His mercy even the offending crowd will find;
    For sure he comes of a forgiving kind.
    Why should I then repine at Heaven's decree,
360   Which gives me no pretence to royalty?
    Yet, oh! that fate, propitiously inclined,
    Had raised my birth, or had debased my mind;
    To my large soul not all her treasure lent,
    And then betray'd it to a mean descent!
365   I find, I find my mounting spirits bold,
    And David's part disdains my mother's mould.
    Why am I scanted by a niggard birth?
    My soul disclaims the kindred of her earth;
    And, made for empire, whispers me within,
370   Desire of greatness is a god-like sin.
    Him staggering so, when hell's dire agent found,
    While fainting virtue scarce maintain'd her ground,
    He pours fresh forces in, and thus replies:
    The eternal God, supremely good and wise,
375   Imparts not these prodigious gifts in vain;
    What wonders are reserved to bless your reign!
    Against your will your arguments have shown,
    Such virtue's only given to guide a throne.
    Not that your father's mildness I contemn;
380   But manly force becomes the diadem.
    'Tis true he grants the people all they crave;
    And more perhaps than subjects ought to have:
385   For lavish grants suppose a monarch tame,
    And more his goodness than his wit proclaim.
    But when should people strive their bonds to break,
    If not when kings are negligent or weak?
    Let him give on till he can give no more,
390   The thrifty Sanhedrim shall keep him poor;
    And every shekel which he can receive,
    Shall cost a limb of his prerogative.
    To ply him with new plots shall be my care;
    Or plunge him deep in some expensive war;
395   Which, when his treasure can no more supply,
    He must with the remains of kingship buy
    His faithful friends, our jealousies and fears
    Call Jebusites, and Pharaoh's pensioners;
    Whom when our fury from his aid has torn,
400   He shall be naked left to public scorn.
    The next successor, whom I fear and hate,
    My arts have made obnoxious to the state;
    Turn'd all his virtues to his overthrow,
    And gain'd our elders to pronounce a foe.
405   His right, for sums of necessary gold,
    Shall first be pawn'd, and afterwards be sold;
    Till time shall ever-wanting David draw,
    To pass your doubtful title into law;
    If not, the people have a right supreme
410   To make their kings, for kings are made for them.
    All empire is no more than power in trust,
    Which, when resumed, can be no longer just.
    Succession, for the general good design'd,
    In its own wrong a nation cannot bind:
415   If altering that the people can relieve,
    Better one suffer than a nation grieve.
    The Jews well know their power: ere Saul they chose,
    God was their king, and God they durst depose.
    Urge now your piety, your filial name,
420   A father's right, and fear of future fame;
    The public good, that universal call,
    To which even Heaven submitted, answers all.
    Nor let his love enchant your generous mind;
    'Tis nature's trick to propagate her kind.
425   Our fond begetters, who would never die,
    Love but themselves in their posterity.
    Or let his kindness by the effects be tried,
    Or let him lay his vain pretence aside.
    God said, he loved your father; could he bring
430   A better proof, than to anoint him king?
    It surely show'd he loved the shepherd well,
    Who gave so fair a flock as Israel.
    Would David have you thought his darling son?
    What means he then to alienate the crown?
435   The name of godly he may blush to bear:
    Is't after God's own heart to cheat his heir?
    He to his brother gives supreme command,
    To you a legacy of barren land;
    Perhaps the old harp, on which he thrums his lays,
440   Or some dull Hebrew ballad in your praise.
    Then the next heir, a prince severe and wise,
    Already looks on you with jealous eyes;
    Sees through the thin disguises of your arts,
    And marks your progress in the people's hearts;
445   Though now his mighty soul its grief contains:
    He meditates revenge who least complains;
    And like a lion, slumbering in the way,
    Or sleep dissembling, while he waits his prey,
    His fearless foes within his distance draws,
450   Constrains his roaring, and contracts his paws;
    Till at the last his time for fury found,
    He shoots with sudden vengeance from the ground;
    The prostrate vulgar passes o'er and spares,
    But with a lordly rage his hunters tears.
455   Your case no tame expedients will afford:
    Resolve on death, or conquest by the sword,
    Which for no less a stake than life you draw;
    And self-defence is nature's eldest law.
    Leave the warm people no considering time:
460   For then rebellion may be thought a crime.
    Avail yourself of what occasion gives,
    But try your title while your father lives:
    And that your arms may have a fair pretence,
    Proclaim you take them in the king's defence;
465   Whose sacred life each minute would expose
    To plots, from seeming friends, and secret foes.
    And who can sound the depth of David's soul?
    Perhaps his fear, his kindness may control.
    He fears his brother, though he loves his son,
470   For plighted vows too late to be undone.
    If so, by force he wishes to be gain'd:
    By women's lechery to seem constrain'd.
    Doubt not; but, when he most affects the frown,
    Commit a pleasing rape upon the crown.
475   Secure his person to secure your cause:
    They who possess the prince possess the laws.
    He said, and this advice above the rest,
    With Absalom's mild nature suited best;
    Unblamed of life, ambition set aside,
480   Not stain'd with cruelty, nor puff'd with pride,
    How happy had he been, if destiny
    Had higher placed his birth, or not so high!
    His kingly virtues might have claim'd a throne,
    And bless'd all other countries but his own.
485   But charming greatness since so few refuse,
    'Tis juster to lament him than accuse.
    Strong were his hopes a rival to remove,
    With blandishments to gain the public love:
    To head the faction while their zeal was hot,
490   And popularly prosecute the Plot.
    To further this, Achitophel unites
    The malcontents of all the Israelites:
    Whose differing parties he could wisely join,
    For several ends to serve the same design.
495   The best—and of the princes some were such—
    Who thought the power of monarchy too much;
    Mistaken men, and patriots in their hearts;
    Not wicked, but seduced by impious arts.
    By these the springs of property were bent,
500   And wound so high, they crack'd the government.
    The next for interest sought to embroil the state,
    To sell their duty at a dearer rate,
    And make their Jewish markets of the throne;
    Pretending public good, to serve their own.
505   Others thought kings an useless heavy load,
    Who cost too much, and did too little good.
    These were for laying honest David by,
    On principles of pure good husbandry.
    With them join'd all the haranguers of the throng,
510   That thought to get preferment by the tongue.
    Who follow next a double danger bring,
    Not only hating David, but the king;
    The Solyimaean rout; well versed of old
    In godly faction, and in treason bold;
515   Cowering and quaking at a conqueror's sword,
    But lofty to a lawful prince restored;
    Saw with disdain an Ethnic plot begun,
    And scorn'd by Jebusites to be outdone.
    Hot Levites headed these; who pull'd before
520   From the ark, which in the Judges' days they bore,
    Resumed their cant, and with a zealous cry,
    Pursued their old beloved theocracy:
    Where Sanhedrim and priest enslaved the nation,
    And justified their spoils by inspiration:
525   For who so fit to reign as Aaron's race,
    If once dominion they could found in grace?
    These led the pack; though not of surest scent,
    Yet deepest mouth'd against the government.
    A numerous host of dreaming saints succeed,
530   Of the true old enthusiastic breed:
    'Gainst form and order they their power employ,
    Nothing to build, and all things to destroy.
    But far more numerous was the herd of such,
    Who think too little, and who talk too much.
535   These out of mere instinct, they knew not why,
    Adored their fathers' God and property;
    And by the same blind benefit of fate,
    The Devil and the Jebusite did hate:
    Born to be saved, even in their own despite,
540   Because they could not help believing right.
    Such were the tools: but a whole Hydra more
    Remains of sprouting heads too long to score.
    Some of their chiefs were princes of the land:
    In the first rank of these did Zimri stand;
545   A man so various, that he seem'd to be
    Not one, but all mankind's epitome:
    Stiff in opinions, always in the wrong;
    Was everything by starts, and nothing long;
    But, in the course of one revolving moon,
550   Was chemist, fiddler, statesman, and buffoon:
    Then all for women, painting, rhyming, drinking,
    Besides ten thousand freaks that died in thinking.
    Blest madman, who could every hour employ,
    With something new to wish, or to enjoy!
555   Railing and praising were his usual themes;
    And both, to show his judgment, in extremes:
    So over violent, or over civil,
    That every man with him was God or Devil.
    In squandering wealth was his peculiar art:
560   Nothing went unrewarded but desert.
    Beggar'd by fools, whom still he found too late;
    He had his jest, and they had his estate.
    He laugh'd himself from court; then sought relief
    By forming parties, but could ne'er be chief:
565   For, spite of him the weight of business fell
    On Absalom and wise Achitophel:
    Thus, wicked but in will, of means bereft,
    He left not faction, but of that was left.
    Titles and names 'twere tedious to rehearse
570   Of lords, below the dignity of verse.
    Wits, warriors, commonwealth's-men, were the best:
    Kind husbands, and mere nobles, all the rest.
    And therefore, in the name of dulness, be
    The well-hung Balaam and cold Caleb free:
575   And canting Nadab let oblivion damn,
    Who made new porridge for the paschal lamb.
    Let friendship's holy band some names assure;
    Some their own worth, and some let scorn secure.
    Nor shall the rascal rabble here have place,
580   Whom kings no titles gave, and God no grace:
    Not bull-faced Jonas, who could statutes draw
    To mean rebellion, and make treason law.
    But he, though bad, is follow'd by a worse,
    The wretch who Heaven's anointed dared to curse;
585   Shimei, whose youth did early promise bring
    Of zeal to God and hatred to his king,
    Did wisely from expensive sins refrain,
    And never broke the Sabbath but for gain;
    Nor ever was he known an oath to vent,
590   Or curse, unless against the government.
    Thus heaping wealth by the most ready way
    Among the Jews, which was to cheat and pray;
    The city, to reward his pious hate
    Against his master, chose him magistrate.
595   His hand a vare[70] of justice did uphold;
    His neck was loaded with a chain of gold.
    During his office treason was no crime;
    The sons of Belial had a glorious time:
    For Shimei, though not prodigal of pelf,
600   Yet loved his wicked neighbour as himself.
    When two or three were gather'd to declaim
    Against the monarch of Jerusalem,
    Shimei was always in the midst of them;
    And if they cursed the king when he was by,
605   Would rather curse than break good company.
    If any durst his factious friends accuse,
    He pack'd a jury of dissenting Jews;
    Whose fellow-feeling in the godly cause
    Would free the suffering saint from human laws.
610   For laws are only made to punish those
    Who serve the king, and to protect his foes.
    If any leisure time he had from power
    (Because 'tis sin to misemploy an hour),
    His business was, by writing to persuade,
615   That kings were useless and a clog to trade;
    And, that his noble style he might refine,
    No Rechabite more shunn'd the fumes of wind.
    Chaste were his cellars, and his shrivel board
    The grossness of a city feast abhorr'd;
620   His cooks with long disuse their trade forgot;
    Cool was his kitchen, though his brains were hot.
    Such frugal virtue malice may accuse,
    But sure 'twas necessary to the Jews;
    For towns, once burnt, such magistrates require
625   As dare not tempt God's providence by fire.
    With spiritual food he fed his servants well,
    But free from flesh that made the Jews rebel:
    And Moses' laws he held in more account,
    For forty days of fasting in the mount.
630   To speak the rest who better are forgot,
    Would tire a well-breathed witness of the plot.
    Yet Corah, thou shalt from oblivion pass;
    Erect thyself, thou monumental brass,
    High as the serpent of thy metal made,
635   While nations stand secure beneath thy shade.
    What though his birth were base, yet comets rise
    From earthly vapours, ere they shine in skies.
    Prodigious actions may as well be done
    By weaver's issue, as by prince's son.
640   This arch attestor for the public good
    By that one deed ennobles all his blood.
    Who ever ask'd the witness's high race,
    Whose oath with martyrdom did Stephen grace?
    Ours was a Levite, and as times went then,
645   His tribe were God Almighty's gentlemen.
    Sunk were his eyes, his voice was harsh and loud,
    Sure signs he neither choleric was, nor proud.
    His long chin proved his wit; his saint-like grace
    A church vermilion, and a Moses' face.
650   His memory miraculously great,
    Could plots, exceeding man's belief, repeat;
    Which therefore cannot be accounted lies,
    For human wit could never such devise.
    Some future truths are mingled in his book;
655   But where the witness fail'd, the prophet spoke.
    Some things like visionary flights appear;
    The spirit caught him up the Lord knows where;
    And gave him his rabbinical degree,
    Unknown to foreign university.
660   His judgment yet his memory did excel;
    Which pieced his wondrous evidence so well,
    And suited to the temper of the times,
    Then groaning under Jebusitic crimes.
    Let Israel's foes suspect his heavenly call,
665   And rashly judge his wit apocryphal;
    Our laws for such affronts have forfeits made;
    He takes his life who takes away his trade.
    Were I myself in witness Corah's place,
    The wretch who did me such a dire disgrace,
670   Should whet my memory, though once forgot,
    To make him an appendix of my plot.
    His zeal to heaven made him his prince despise,
    And load his person with indignities.
    But zeal peculiar privilege affords,
675   Indulging latitude to deeds and words:
    And Corah might for Agag's murder call,
    In terms as coarse as Samuel used to Saul.
    What others in his evidence did join,
    The best that could be had for love or coin,
680   In Corah's own predicament will fall:
    For witness is a common name to all.
    Surrounded thus with friends of every sort,
    Deluded Absalom forsakes the court:
    Impatient of high hopes, urged with renown,
685   And fired with near possession of a crown.
    The admiring crowd are dazzled with surprise,
    And on his goodly person feed their eyes.
    His joy conceal'd he sets himself to show;
    On each side bowing popularly low:
690   His looks, his gestures, and his words he frames,
    And with familiar ease repeats their names.
    Thus form'd by nature, furnish'd out with arts,
    He glides unfelt into their secret hearts.
    Then, with a kind compassionating look,
695   And sighs, bespeaking pity ere he spoke,
    Few words he said; but easy those and fit,
    More slow than Hybla-drops, and far more sweet.
    I mourn, my countrymen, your lost estate;
    Though far unable to prevent your fate:
700   Behold a banish'd man for your dear cause
    Exposed a prey to arbitrary laws!
    Yet oh! that I alone could be undone,
    Cut off from empire, and no more a son!
    Now all your liberties a spoil are made;
705   Egypt and Tyrus intercept your trade,
    And Jebusites your sacred rites invade.
    My father, whom with reverence yet I name,
    Charm'd into ease, is careless of his fame;
    And bribed with petty sums of foreign gold,
710   Is grown in Bathsheba's embraces old;
    Exalts his enemies, his friends destroys,
    And all his power against himself employs.
    He gives, and let him give, my right away:
    But why should he his own and yours betray?
715   He, only he, can make the nation bleed,
    And he alone from my revenge is freed.
    Take then my tears (with that he wiped his eyes),
    'Tis all the aid my present power supplies:
    No court-informer can these arms accuse;
720   These arms may sons against their fathers use:
    And 'tis my wish, the next successor's reign,
    May make no other Israelite complain.
    Youth, beauty, graceful action seldom fail;
    But common interest always will prevail:
725   And pity never ceases to be shown
    To him who makes the people's wrongs his own.
    The crowd, that still believe their kings oppress,
    With lifted hands their young Messiah bless:
    Who now begins his progress to ordain
730   With chariots, horsemen, and a numerous train:
    From east to west his glories he displays,
    And, like the sun, the promised land surveys.
    Fame runs before him as the morning-star,
    And shouts of joy salute him from afar:
735   Each house receives him as a guardian god,
    And consecrates the place of his abode.
    But hospitable treats did most commend
    Wise Issachar, his wealthy western friend.
    This moving court, that caught the people's eyes,
740   And seem'd but pomp, did other ends disguise:
    Achitophel had form'd it, with intent
    To sound the depths, and fathom where it went,
    The people's hearts, distinguish friends from foes,
    And try their strength, before they came to blows.
745   Yet all was colour'd with a smooth pretence
    Of specious love, and duty to their prince.
    Religion, and redress of grievances,
    Two names that always cheat, and always please,
    Are often urged; and good king David's life
750   Endanger'd by a brother and a wife.
    Thus in a pageant show a plot is made;
    And peace itself is war in masquerade.
    O foolish Israel! never warn'd by ill!
    Still the same bait, and circumvented still!
755   Did ever men forsake their present ease,
    In midst of health imagine a disease;
    Take pains contingent mischiefs to foresee,
    Make heirs for monarchs, and for God decree?
    What shall we think? Can people give away,
760   Both for themselves and sons, their native sway?
    Then they are left defenceless to the sword
    Of each unbounded, arbitrary lord:
    And laws are vain, by which we right enjoy,
    If kings unquestion'd can those laws destroy.
765   Yet if the crowd be judge of fit and just,
    And kings are only officers in trust,
    Then this resuming covenant was declared
    When kings were made, or is for ever barr'd.
    If those who gave the sceptre could not tie,
770   By their own deed, their own posterity,
    How then could Adam bind his future race?
    How could his forfeit on mankind take place?
    Or how could heavenly justice damn us all,
    Who ne'er consented to our father's fall?
775   Then kings are slaves to those whom they command,
    And tenants to their people's pleasure stand.
    Add, that the power for property allow'd
    Is mischievously seated in the crowd;
    For who can be secure of private right,
780   If sovereign sway may be dissolved by might?
    Nor is the people's judgment always true:
    The most may err as grossly as the few?
    And faultless kings run down by common cry,
    For vice, oppression, and for tyranny.
785   What standard is there in a fickle rout,
    Which, flowing to the mark, runs faster out?
    Nor only crowds but Sanhedrims may be
    Infected with this public lunacy,
    And share the madness of rebellious times,
790   To murder monarchs for imagined crimes.
    If they may give and take whene'er they please,
    Not kings alone, the Godhead's images,
    But government itself at length must fall
    To nature's state, where all have right to all.
795   Yet, grant our lords the people kings can make,
    What prudent men a settled throne would shake?
    For whatsoe'er their sufferings were before,
    That change they covet makes them suffer more.
    All other errors but disturb a state;
800   But innovation is the blow of fate.
    If ancient fabrics nod, and threat to fall,
    To patch their flaws, and buttress up the wall,
    Thus far 'tis duty: but here fix the mark;
    For all beyond it is to touch the ark.
805   To change foundations, cast the frame anew,
    Is work for rebels, who base ends pursue;
    At once divine and human laws control,
    And mend the parts by ruin of the whole,
    The tampering world is subject to this curse,
810   To physic their disease into a worse.
    Now what relief can righteous David bring?
    How fatal 'tis to be too good a king!
    Friends he has few, so high the madness grows;
    Who dare be such must be the people's foes.
815   Yet some there were, even in the worst of days;
    Some let me name, and naming is to praise.
    In this short file Barzillai first appears;
    Barzillai, crown'd with honour and with years.
    Long since, the rising rebels he withstood
820   In regions waste beyond the Jordan's flood:
    Unfortunately brave to buoy the state;
    But sinking underneath his master's fate:
    In exile with his godlike prince he mourn'd;
    For him he suffer'd, and with him return'd.
825   The court he practised, not the courtier's art:
    Large was his wealth, but larger was his heart,
    Which well the noblest objects knew to choose,
    The fighting warrior, and recording muse.
    His bed could once a fruitful issue boast;
830   Now more than half a father's name is lost.
    His eldest hope, with every grace adorn'd,
    By me, so Heaven will have it, always mourn'd,
    And always honour'd, snatch'd in manhood's prime
    By unequal fates, and providence's crime:
835   Yet not before the goal of honour won,
    All parts fulfill'd of subject and of son:
    Swift was the race, but short the time to run.
    O narrow circle, but of power divine,
    Scanted in space, but perfect in thy line!
840   By sea, by land, thy matchless worth was known,
    Arms thy delight, and war was all thy own:
    Thy force infused the fainting Tyrians propp'd;
    And haughty Pharaoh found his fortune stopp'd.
    O ancient honour! O unconquer'd hand,
845   Whom foes unpunish'd never could withstand!
    But Israel was unworthy of his name;
    Short is the date of all immoderate fame.
    It looks as Heaven our ruin had design'd,
    And durst not trust thy fortune and thy mind.
850   Now, free from earth, thy disencumber'd soul
    Mounts up, and leaves behind the clouds and starry pole:
    From thence thy kindred legions mayst thou bring,
    To aid the guardian angel of thy king.
    Here stop, my muse, here cease thy painful flight:
855   No pinions can pursue immortal height:
    Tell good Barzillai thou canst sing no more,
    And tell thy soul she should have fled before:
    Or fled she with his life, and left this verse
    To hang on her departed patron's hearse?
860   Now take thy steepy flight from heaven, and see
    If thou canst find on earth another he:
    Another he would be too hard to find;
    See then whom thou canst see not far behind.
    Zadoc the priest, whom, shunning power and place,
865   His lowly mind advanced to David's grace.
    With him the Sagan of Jerusalem,
    Of hospitable soul, and noble stem;
    Him of the western dome, whose weighty sense
    Flows in fit words and heavenly eloquence.
870   The prophets' sons, by such example led,
    To learning and to loyalty were bred:
    For colleges on bounteous kings depend,
    And never rebel was to arts a friend.
    To these succeed the pillars of the laws,
875   Who best can plead, and best can judge a cause.
    Next them a train of loyal peers ascend;
    Sharp-judging Adriel, the Muses' friend,
    Himself a Muse: in Sanhedrim's debate
    True to his prince, but not a slave of state:
880   Whom David's love with honours did adorn,
    That from his disobedient son were torn.
    Jotham, of piercing wit, and pregnant thought;
    Endued by nature, and by learning taught
    To move assemblies, who but only tried
885   The worse awhile, then chose the better side:
    Nor chose alone, but turn'd the balance too,—
    So much the weight of one brave man can do.
    Hushai, the friend of David in distress;
    In public storms of manly steadfastness:
890   By foreign treaties he inform'd his youth,
    And join'd experience to his native truth.
    His frugal care supplied the wanting throne—
    Frugal for that, but bounteous of his own:
    'Tis easy conduct when exchequers flow;
895   But hard the task to manage well the low;
    For sovereign power is too depress'd or high,
    When kings are forced to sell, or crowds to buy.
    Indulge one labour more, my weary muse,
    For Amiel: who can Amiel's praise refuse?
900   Of ancient race by birth, but nobler yet
    In his own worth, and without title great:
    The Sanhedrim long time as chief he ruled,
    Their reason guided, and their passion cool'd:
    So dexterous was he in the crown's defence,
905   So form'd to speak a loyal nation's sense,
    That, as their band was Israel's tribes in small,
    So fit was he to represent them all.
    Now rasher charioteers the seat ascend,
    Whose loose careers his steady skill commend:
910   They, like the unequal ruler of the day,
    Misguide the seasons, and mistake the way;
    While he withdrawn, at their mad labours smiles,
    And safe enjoys the sabbath of his toils.
    These were the chief, a small but faithful band
915   Of worthies, in the breach who dared to stand,
    And tempt the united fury of the land:
    With grief they view'd such powerful engines bent,
    To batter down the lawful government.
    A numerous faction, with pretended frights,
920   In Sanhedrims to plume the regal rights;
    The true successor from the court removed;
    The plot, by hireling witnesses, improved.
    These ills they saw, and, as their duty bound,
    They show'd the King the danger of the wound;
925   That no concessions from the throne would please,
    But lenitives fomented the disease:
    That Absalom, ambitious of the crown,
    Was made the lure to draw the people down:
    That false Achitophel's pernicious hate
930   Had turn'd the Plot to ruin church and state:
    The council violent, the rabble worse:
    That Shimei taught Jerusalem to curse.
    With all these loads of injuries oppress'd,
    And long revolving in his careful breast
935   The event of things, at last his patience tired,
    Thus, from his royal throne, by Heaven inspired,
    The god-like David spoke; with awful fear,
    His train their Maker in their master hear.
    Thus long have I, by native mercy sway'd,
940   My wrongs dissembled, my revenge delay'd:
    So willing to forgive the offending age;
    So much the father did the king assuage.
    But now so far my clemency they slight,
    The offenders question my forgiving right:
945   That one was made for many, they contend;
    But 'tis to rule; for that's a monarch's end.
    They call my tenderness of blood, my fear:
    Though manly tempers can the longest bear.
    Yet, since they will divert my native course,
950   'Tis time to show I am not good by force.
    Those heap'd affronts that haughty subjects bring,
    Are burdens for a camel, not a king.
    Kings are the public pillars of the state,
    Born to sustain and prop the nation's weight:
955   If my young Samson will pretend a call
    To shake the column, let him share the fall:
    But oh, that yet he would repent and live!
    How easy 'tis for parents to forgive!
    With how few tears a pardon might be won
960   From nature, pleading for a darling son!
    Poor, pitied youth, by my paternal care,
    Raised up to all the height his frame could bear!
    Had God ordain'd his fate for empire born,
    He would have given his soul another turn:
965   Gull'd with a patriot's name, whose modern sense
    Is one that would by law supplant his prince;
    The people's brave, the politician's tool;
    Never was patriot yet, but was a fool.
    Whence comes it, that religion and the laws
970   Should more be Absalom's than David's cause?
    His old instructor, ere he lost his place,
    Was never thought endued with so much grace.
    Good heavens, how faction can a patriot paint!
    My rebel ever proves my people's saint.
975   Would they impose an heir upon the throne,
    Let Sanhedrims be taught to give their own.
    A king's at least a part of government;
    And mine as requisite as their consent:
    Without my leave a future king to choose,
980   Infers a right the present to depose.
    True, they petition me to approve their choice:
    But Esau's hands suit ill with Jacob's voice.
    My pious subjects for my safety pray,
    Which to secure, they take my power away.
985   From plots and treasons Heaven preserve my years,
    But save me most from my petitioners!
    Insatiate as the barren womb or grave,
    God cannot grant so much as they can crave.
    What then is left, but with a jealous eye
990   To guard the small remains of royalty?
    The law shall still direct my peaceful sway,
    And the same law teach rebels to obey:
    Votes shall no more establish'd power control,
    Such votes as make a part exceed the whole.
995   No groundless clamours shall my friends remove,
    Nor crowds have power to punish ere they prove;
    For gods and god-like kings their care express,
    Still to defend their servants in distress.
    O that my power to saving were confined!
1000   Why am I forced, like Heaven, against my mind;
    To make examples of another kind?
    Must I at length the sword of justice draw?
    Oh, cursed effects of necessary law!
    How ill my fear they by my mercy scan!
1005   Beware the fury of a patient man!
    Law they require, let law then show her face;
    They could not be content to look on grace,
    Her hinder parts, but with a daring eye
    To tempt the terror of her front and die.
1010   By their own arts 'tis righteously decreed,
    Those dire artificers of death shall bleed.
    Against themselves their witnesses will swear,
    Till, viper-like, their mother-plot they tear;
    And suck for nutriment that bloody gore,
1015   Which was their principle of life before.
    Their Belial with their Beelzebub will fight:
    Thus on my foes, my foes shall do me right.
    Nor doubt the event: for factious crowds engage,
    In their first onset, all their brutal rage.
1020   Then let them take an unresisted course;
    Retire, and traverse, and delude their force;
    But when they stand all breathless, urge the fight,
    And rise upon them with redoubled might—
    For lawful power is still superior found;
1025   When long driven back, at length it stands the ground.
    He said: The Almighty, nodding, gave consent;
    And peals of thunder shook the firmament.
    Henceforth a series of new time began,
    The mighty years in long procession ran:
1030   Once more the god-like David was restored,
    And willing nations knew their lawful lord.

First published 1681

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