Some of the most interesting characters in the pre-modern world were those who proved to be a thorn in the side of the mighty and powerful, and yet found enough patrons to keep working on their texts or other works. After all, it would be a grave misunderstanding of the past if we considered it to be a peaceful and calm world with no conflicts or strife. The very opposite was the case, and one of the most interesting figures to voice severe criticism of monarchy and especially the papacy was Marsilius of Padua, a philosopher, theologian, and medical doctor who studied and taught at the University of Paris for some years and later worked as King/Emperor Ludwig (Louis) IV of Bavaria’s personal physician (maybe more as his political advisor than as his medical doctor). He is most famous…

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Citation: Classen, Albrecht. "Marsilius of Padua". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 17 February 2023 [, accessed 09 December 2023.]

15003 Marsilius of Padua 1 Historical context notes are intended to give basic and preliminary information on a topic. In some cases they will be expanded into longer entries as the Literary Encyclopedia evolves.

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