The culture of the twelfth century has been rightly called “The Twelfth-Century Renaissance” because medieval Europe experienced a dramatic growth in courtly literature, philosophy, law, the arts, architecture, and also technology (see Charles Homer Haskins, The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century, 1927; Giles Constable, The Reformation of the Twelfth Century, 1996; Heinrich Fichtenau, Heretics and Scholars in the High Middle Ages [1992], 1998). One of the leading theoretical thinkers was John of Salisbury who has been hailed as a true humanist even in the modern sense of the word. He was born at Old Sarum (the former site of Salisbury) sometime between 1115 and 1120. The famous Peter Abelard, who basically …

Please log in to consult the article in its entirety. If you are a member (student of staff) of a subscribing institution (see List), you should be able to access the LE on campus directly (without the need to log in), and off-campus either via the institutional log in we offer, or via your institution's remote access facilities, or by creating a personal user account with your institutional email address. If you are not a member of a subscribing institution, you will need to purchase a personal subscription. For more information on how to subscribe as an individual user, please see under Individual Subcriptions.

Classen, Albrecht. "John of Salisbury". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 11 February 2004
[, accessed 28 July 2016.]