When the National Socialists usurped power in Germany in 1933 and rapidly dismantled the existing democratic system, they immediately persecuted and banned German-Jewish and all dissenting authors, many of whom stood on the political left. Already on 10 May 1933, books by more than 40 writers were publicly burned. The infamous Nürnberger Gesetze, “racial laws” issued in 1935, “legalized” the persecution of German Jews. Concentration camps existed from the start, and dissidents were brutalized, imprisoned, tortured, expropriated and murdered. After 1938, Nazi terror in Germany and in annexed Austria reached a first high point and had managed, to a large extent, to silence any …
Knapp, Gerhard P., Marc J. Schweissinger. "German Exile Literature 1933-1945". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 15 September 2005; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=1595, accessed 28 April 2015.]