Battle of Leghorn/ Livorno (184 words)

Historical Context Note

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The Battle of Livorno formed part of the First Anglo-Dutch War. The United Provinces of the Netherlands was the foremost Protestant state in continental Europe, and the most obvious potential ally of the English Commonwealth. In 1651, two envoys from England, Oliver St. John and Walter Strickland, attempted to broker just such an alliance, but were refused. After negotiations broke down, the English Commonwealth reacted by passing a Navigation Act aimed at crippling Dutch trade, and formally declared war on 10th July 1652.

The war was largely fought over control of trade routes, and conflicts took place in both the English Channel and the Mediterranean. Leghorn was the English name for the port of Livorno, on the Tuscan coast of …

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