The greatest political and military transformation affecting early medieval Europe is intimately connected with the rise of the Carolingian Empire in the area of modern-day France, parts of Germany, and neighboring areas. In the eighth century the Merovingian dynasty in the Frankish kingdom drastically declined in power, increasingly overshadowed by their major domus, or mayor of the palace (a kind of secretary of state, if not prime minister) of the house of the Carolingians, who achieved the ultimate triumph under the practically independent rule by Charles Martel (ca. 720-741). The rise of that dynasty began very early, but it became noticeable only under the …
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Classen, Albrecht. "Carolingian Empire". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 04 March 2008
[https://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=5493, accessed 16 December 2018.]