The second surviving son of King Charles I and Henrietta Maria, James Stuart was born at St James's Palace in 1633, and when his elder brother, King Charles II , died in 1685 he succeeded to the English throne as James II, and to the Scottish as James VIII. James was a convert to Roman Catholicism, which alienated the Anglican majority during his reign, as well as a proponent of the monarch's Divine Right (jure divino) at a time when the city merchants and landed oligarchs in Parliament were becoming ascendant. Consequently, James was forcibly removed from royal office by the
Seager, Nicholas. "Reign of King James II". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 10 February 2006; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=643, accessed 27 April 2015.]