Marie-Louise Gagneur, Le Calvaire des femmes

Cecilia Beach (Alfred University)
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Le Calvaire des femmes


The Ordeals of Women

] by Marie-Louise Gagneur is a social novel exposing the suffering of working-class women and the corruption, decadence and injustice of Second Empire France. It was first published in serial form in

Le Siècle

(4 Nov. – 7 Dec 1866), followed by a sequel entitled

Les Réprouvées


The Outcasts

]. The original title of the first part was

L’Enfer des femmes


Women’s Hell

), but was changed to

Le Calvaire des femmes

on 22 November 1866 when it was brought to the author’s attention that another book had recently been published under the first title. In addition to a volume printed by

Le Siècle,


Le Calvaire des femmes


Les Réprouvées

were published by Faure in 1867, by Armand Le Chevalier in 1869, and by Librairies des célébrités…

2227 words

Citation: Beach, Cecilia. "Le Calvaire des femmes". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 22 July 2017 [, accessed 22 April 2024.]

35749 Le Calvaire des femmes 3 Historical context notes are intended to give basic and preliminary information on a topic. In some cases they will be expanded into longer entries as the Literary Encyclopedia evolves.

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