Stanisław Lem (1921-2006) is a leading science fiction writer, whose narratives and essays abound in satirical and philosophical speculation on the nature of science, technology, and the human. Over the course of his lifetime the Polish author wrote more than 20 novels, as well as volumes of short stories and books of non-fiction. His works have been translated into 41 languages, from English to Japanese, with more than 27 million volumes published. He has gained an international reputation as an innovative SF writer, whose acute observations of the development of science and technology and its influence on human nature pose important existential questions. Lem’s books have been the basis of several film adaptations, most notably the …
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Foeller-Pituch, Elzbieta. "Stanisław Lem". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 23 June 2008
[https://www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=12214, accessed 23 April 2018.]