Gaius Musonius Rufus (hereinafter M.) was a Stoic philosopher and teacher of Etruscan origin, active in the second half of the first century CE (c. 30-100 CE). M. was born in the Etruscan city of Volsinii (Bolsena), and his family was of equestrian status. His life is marked by three different periods of exile. During the first one, around the year 60 CE, he followed Rubellius Plautus who had been banished by Nero to Asia Minor (Tacitus, Ann. 15.71). After the assassination of Rubellius, M. came back to Rome to resume his teaching activity. The second period of exile took place immediately after the Pisonian conspiracy in 65 CE (Tacitus, Ann., 15.71; Cassius Dio, lxii. 27; Philostratus, Vit. Apoll., 7.16) and ended probably under Galba (68 CE) who called M. back to Rome from the

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Citation: Gazzarri, Tommaso. "Musonius Rufus". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 29 June 2016 [, accessed 16 July 2024.]

13787 Musonius Rufus 1 Historical context notes are intended to give basic and preliminary information on a topic. In some cases they will be expanded into longer entries as the Literary Encyclopedia evolves.

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