Martínez Ruiz, José, 'Azorín' (4105 words)

Roberta Johnson (University of California, Los Angeles)
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José Martínez Ruiz (better known by his pseudonym “Azorín” [little hawk]) formed part of a group of writers and thinkers that emerged in Spain in the late nineteenth century and began to be known in the early twentieth century. Traditionally, this group, which included Miguel de Unamuno, Ramón del Valle Inclán, Pío Baroja, and Antonio Machado along with Azorín, is known as the Generation of ’98, so named by Azorín himself in 1913. While they knew each other, they did not form a movement of the kind we associate with later Vanguard writers and artists; the Generation of ’98 writers did not write manifestos or otherwise make public pronouncements of common …

Citation: Johnson, Roberta. "Martínez Ruiz, José, 'Azorín'". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 27 August 2020 [, accessed 24 June 2021.]

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