[Preliminary Entry] The siege of Vienna by Turkish forces came at the end of a century of war in eastern Europe between the Ottoman empire, Russia, Austro-Hungary and Poland. In retrospect the siege was the high-water mark of Ottoman expansion which began as the Ottomans moved out wards from Anatolia (1300-1400) and finally ended in defeat during the First World War, leading to the formation of the modern Turkish Republic in 1922.
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Editors. "Turkey besieges Vienna". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 08 April 2004
[https://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=1408, accessed 24 October 2017.]